On Wednesday, the 17th of this month, the time of applying the Caesar Act to Syria and the United States imposing the toughest set of sanctions on Syria is within the American Caesar Act to protect civilians in Syria, which was passed by the US administration in December 2019 and allows it to impose sanctions on countries and companies Foreigners who helped the Syrian government in its military operations.
The law also includes punishing individuals, companies or countries that establish commercial relations with Syria or assist the Syrian government in any way, and it is similar to the laws under which Washington imposes sanctions on Iran.
7 key points in the US Caesar’s Act
The United States has set 7 standards for lifting sanctions: Syria and Russia should stop using Syrian airspace to bomb civilians (as the Act says), open areas controlled by Syria, Russia, and Iran to transport humanitarian aid, and the Syrian government to release all prisoners Politicians, and the failure of the Syrian and Russian forces and others to bomb health centers, clinics or hospitals.
Besides, the Syrian regime must take legal action against those who have committed war crimes, allow the return of refugees and compensate civilians for the deaths of their relatives.
This highly detailed legislation covers all economic and military activities not only for Syria, but also for Iran and Russia.
How will the United States punish Russia and Iran?
However, the Act does not explain how the United States intends to compel Russia and Iran to abide by its provisions, nor does it mention whether Washington intends to impose more sanctions on Iran and Russia while the Americans are in talks with Moscow about the future of Libya and trying to find a common solution to the crisis that has persisted since Held in Syria.
The prohibitions and penalties stipulated in the Act will not affect much in Russia and Iran, besides that Damascus is already subject to harsh penalties; This means that the new sanctions are not expected to significantly change the economic situation.
The Act ignores the Kurds who engage in extensive trade with the Syrian government and Washington has made clear that the areas controlled by the Kurds in northern Syria will be exempt from sanctions, but those provinces are engaging in broad trade with the Syrian government, and sell them oil, wheat, and other products.
Nor does the Act mention at all Turkey, which controls parts of northern Syria, and with Russia controls the security areas there.
In recent months, there have been allegations that Turkey and the militias acting on its behalf are harming Kurdish civilians residing in the city of Afrin, which is controlled by Ankara.
Although the effectiveness and strength of Caesar Act have not been demonstrated on the ground until the moment, the United States threatens to re-impose international sanctions on Iran that were lifted after the 2015 nuclear agreement was signed.
And the arms embargo imposed on Iran is prevented from buying or selling conventional weapons for five years from the date of signing the agreement, which will expire in mid-October of this year.
How can sanctions be effective?
The US sanctions policy has not yet succeeded in generating the desired diplomatic results.
Iran and Syria have not changed their policies, and none of the sanctions imposed on the two countries demand a change in the ruling regime.
Nor did sanctions succeed for more than 12 years when sanctions were imposed on Iraq.